** Authors:**
RANDY WAYNE

** Abstract: **
In another paper in this series, we developed a symmetrical
theory of mass which describes how systems of positive mass and
negative mass will respond to an input of thermal energy. A system
composed of positive mass or negative mass will respond to an input of
thermal energy in opposite ways. For example, if a system composed of
positive mass expands in response to radiation from a hot body, a
system composed of negative mass will contract. Likewise, if the
system composed of positive mass contracts when brought in
communication with a cold body, a system composed of negative mass
will expand. In addition, when a system of positive or negative mass
is brought into contact with radiation from a thermal reservoir either
hotter or colder than the system, thermal processes are induced such
that the sign of the change of entropy of a system composed of
positive mass is opposite of that of a system composed of negative
mass. That is, in response to thermal energy, a system of negative
mass behaves as if it is a system of positive mass going backwards in
time. This is reminiscent of Feynman's definition of antimatter as
matter going backwards in time.
Negative mass is consistent with the negative energy solutions to the
equations of the Special Theory of Relativity when combined with
quantum mechanics. Formally, the total energy of a particle can be
either positive or negative, which means that the mass of that
particle can be either positive or negative. Dirac eliminated the
negative mass solution by giving certain complex properties to the
vacuum. Pauli used only the positive mass solutions to build the
theory of spin and statistics. On the other hand, we interpret both
the positive and negative energy solutions to be real solutions that
represent substances with positive mass and negative mass,
respectively.
Thermal energy is only one part of the spectrum of electromagnetic
radiation. It is well known that matter and antimatter respond to
electromagnetic radiation in opposite ways. For example, if an
electron moves one way in an electromagnetic field, a positron will
move in the opposite way. We apply our theory of positive and
negative mass to matter and antimatter and suggest that it productive
to consider matter as having a positive mass and antimatter as having
a negative mass. The equations presented here, which treat matter as
having a positive mass and antimatter as having a negative mass, can
account for the experimental observations of matter and antimatter in
electromagnetic fields. Our treatment allows the symmetry between
matter and antimatter to be treated in a more causal manner.

** Keywords: **
Antimatter, entropy, negative mass, reversibility, Second
Law of Thermodynamics, symmetry, time direction

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